Saturday, June 2, 2012

71. ROSTER ROLL OF THE 8TH ARMY CORPS - American Volunteers in the Philippines during the 1898 Spanish American War


I would like to share this book - Roster Roll of the 8th Army Corps by Sheare & Burnett,  copyrighted 1899.  It contains the complete list of all American Volunteers who fought in the Spanish American war in the Philippines.  Each page contains facsimile signature of each volunteer including their ranks and their company.  Scarce souvenir book of the 8th Army Coprs printed in Manila.


Roster Roll of the 8th Army Corps by Sheare & Burnett.  Copyrighted 1899.


BACKGROUND of the 8TH ARMY CORPS


After the American victory in Manila Bay over two months earlier, the U.S. Navy, under Admiral George Dewey, had blockaded the city of Manila and waited for land forces to arrive. The United States reacted by organizing the 8th Corps, dubbed the Philippine Expeditionary Force under the command of Major General Wesley Merritt. In May, the vanguard of the force left San Francisco under the command of Brigadier General Thomas M. Anderson. By mid-June, some 30,000 Filipino troops under general Antonio Luna had dug fourteen miles of trenches around Manila. Filipino troops, seizing control of Manila's only pumping station, cut off the water supply to the city.

The first contingent of American troops arrived in Cavite on June 30, the second under General Frank V. Greene on 17 July, and the third under General Arthur MacArthur on 30 July.  By this time, some 12,000 U.S. troops had landed in the Philippines.

Aguinaldo had presented surrender terms to Spanish Governor General Basilio Augustín, who had refused them. On 16 June, warships departed Spain to lift the siege, but they altered course for Cuba where a Spanish fleet was imperiled by the U.S. Navy. Life in Intramuros, where the normal population of about ten thousand had swelled to about seventy thousand, had become unbearable. Realizing that it was only a matter of time before the city fell, and fearing vengeance and looting if the city fell to the Filipinos, Governor Augustín had suggested to Dewey that the city be surrendered to the Americans after a sham battle. Dewey had initially rejected the suggestion because he lacked the troops to block Filipino forces but, Merritt's troops now being available, he sent a message to Fermin Jáudenes, Augustín's replacement, agreeing to the charade.

Merritt was eager to seize the city, but Dewey stalled while maneuvering to work out a bloodless solution with Jaudenes. On 4 August, Dewey and Merritt gave Jaudenes 48 hours to surrender; later extending the deadline by five days when it expired.  Covert negotiations continued, with the details of the mock battle being arranged on 10 August. The plan agreed to was that Dewey would begin a bombardment at 09:00 on 13 August, shelling only Fort San Antonio de Abad, a decrepit structure on the southern outskirts of Manila, and the impregnable walls of Intramuros. Simultaneously, Spanish forces would withdraw, Filipino forces would be checked, and U.S. forces would advance. Once a sufficient show of battle had been made, Dewey would hoist the international surrender signal, "DWHB", whereupon the Spanish would hoist a white flag and Manila would be formally surrendered to U.S. forces.

SOURCE: Wikipedia, Battle of Manila (1898)
Admiral George Dewey  of the US fleet (center), Admiral Montojo of the Spanish Armada (left) and Charles Gridley, fired the first shot in the Battle of Manila Bay in 1898 (right)


BATTERY A. UTAH LIGHT ARTILLERY

U.S.  VOLUNTEERS of the BATTERY A. UTAH LIGHT ARTILLERY
BATTERY B. UTAH LIGHT ARTILLERY
U.S.  VOLUNTEERS of the  BATTERY B. UTAH LIGHT ARTILLERY
THE SHOULDERS STRAPS OF THE UTAH LIGHT ARTILLERY TWENTY YEARS AFTER THE FALL OF MANILA
 
3RD REGIMENT U.S. ARTILLERY - G & H
3RD REGIMENT U.S. ARTILLERY - K & L


WESLEY MERITT

Merritt was placed in command of the 8th Army Corps being raised in California. In June 1898, Merritt and the last of the 8th Corps departed from San Francisco for the Philippines.   

Once Merritt arrived on Manila's island of Luzon, he and Dewey made preparations for the attack on the city. The two intentionally kept Emilio Aguinaldo in the dark about the plans for the attack since neither wanted Aguinaldo's insurgents to end up in control of the city. Merritt and Dewey made arrangements with Governor General Fermin Jaudenes, commander of the Spanish garrison, to surrender the city to the U.S. only after the latter put up a token resistance. The city fell to the Americans on August 13 during the Battle of Manila, and Merritt became the military governor of the Philippines. He later advised the U.S. in the peace negotiations at the Treaty of Paris.







1ST COLORADO INFANTRY - A, B & C

1ST COLORADO INFANTRY - D, E & F

1ST COLORADO INFANTRY - G, H & I

1ST COLORADO INFANTRY - K, L & M


OLD GLORY THROWN TO THE BREEZE FROM THE BATTLEMENTS OF FORT SAN ANTONIO ABAD MALATE, P.I.


On August 13, with American commanders unaware that a peace protocol had been signed between Spain and the U.S. the previous day, Dewey began his bombardment as scheduled. Dewey had directed his ship captains to spare Manila any serious damage but gunners on one ship, unaware of the negotiated arrangements, scored several direct hits before its captain was able to cease firing and withdraw from the line.

General Greene's brigade pushed rapidly through Malate and over the bridges to occupy Binondo and San Miguel. General MacArthur, advancing simultaneously on the Pasay road, encountered and overcame resistance at the blockhouses, trenches, and woods in his front, advanced and held the bridges and the town of Malate. This placed Manila in American possession, except for Intramuros. Shortly after entering Malate, U.S. troops observed a white flag displayed on the walls of Intramuros. Lieutenant Colonel C. A. Whittier, United States Volunteers, representing General Merritt, and Lieutenant Brumby, U.S. Navy, representing Admiral Dewey, were sent ashore to communicate with the Captain-General. General Merritt soon personally followed, met with Governor General Jaudenes, and concluded a preliminary agreement of the terms of capitulation.

Though a bloodless sham battle had been planned, Spanish troops had opened fire in a skirmish which left six Americans and forty-nine Spaniards dead when Filipino troops, thinking that the attack was genuine, joined advancing U.S. troops. Except for the unplanned casualties, the battle had gone according to plan; the Spanish had surrendered the city to the Americans, and it had not fallen to the Filipinos.

1ST CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEERS INFANTRY - A & B


1ST CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEERS INFANTRY - C, D & E


1ST CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEERS INFANTRY ROSTER


1ST CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEERS INFANTRY - F, G & H

1ST CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEERS INFANTRY - I, K & L


1ST CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEERS INFANTRY

VICINITY OF CAMP DEWEY, PHILIPPINE ISLAND
NATIVE PLOWING IN RICE FIELD WITH WATER BUFFALO

FIELD AND STAFF OFFICERS 1ST CALIFORNIA &
NON COMMISSIONED STAFF
10TH PENNSYLVANIA INFANTRY
10TH PENNSYLVANIA INFANTRY


Showing the CAPUCHINO MISSION under AMERICAN LINES

10TH PENNSYLVANIA INFANTRY -Company's E & D

10TH PENNSYLVANIA INFANTRY ROSTER


2ND OREGON INFANTRY - A, B, C & D

Showing USS CHARLESTON and GUAM ISLAND


2ND OREGON INFANTRY - E, F, G & H

2ND OREGON INFANTRY - I, K, L & M


NIGHT ATTACK ON THE AMERICAN LINES


1ST MONTANA INFANTRY

1ST MONTANA INFANTRY

MAP SHOWING OPERATIONS OF LAND AND SEA FORCES IN THE VICINITY OF MANILA.  DURING THE AMERICAN AND SPANISH WARS.



2 comments:

  1. Wow, great collection!! I have recently uncovered a stash of Aguinaldo stamps and documents. I am having a terrible time valuating and identifying them. If you could offer any insight I would greatly appreciate it. clayallen00@yahoo.com

    Thanks,
    Clay

    ReplyDelete
  2. I have a friend with this same book.. How do you find out how much it is worth?

    ReplyDelete