Tuesday, February 20, 2018

121. Philippine Sweepstakes and Lottery Tickets

Spanish Philippine lottery tickets (1851-1898)

Tickets to' fortune


Old sweepstakes and lottery tickets are collected for their charming illustrations, dates and historical value


By RAMON N. VILLEGAS


DON'T throwaway those old sweepstakes tickets. You may still be a winner! There are people
who collect them - not just here, but also abroad. The prices of rarer ones are quoted in
US dollars.

1851 Real Loteria Filipina .  The 1st lottery ticket 
Over the centuries, governments frequently used lotteries to supplement income from taxation. The earliest state lotteries were organized in France in 1520. In 1680, England held a lottery to raise funds for improving London's water supply equipment. Spain developed the gordo, and Ireland, the sweepstakes. Lotteries were popular in the United States, but anomalies forced the federal government to eventually ban the sale of tickets across state lines and through the mail in 1890. No government-sponsored lotteries were held in the US between the 1890s and 1963.


In the Philippines, a private enterprise called the Empresa de Reales Loteria Espaiiolas de Filipinas held lotteries as early as 1833. By a royal order dated January 29,1850, the Spanish queen established the Real Renta de Loteria. The Real Loteria Filipina was administered by the Intendant of the Army and Superintendent-General delegated by the Finance Department (Hacienda Publica), as drawn up in an implementing order signed June 27, 1850 by Juan de la Matta. Initially, the tickets were to be sold only in the provinces of Tondo (national capital region), Bulacan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, the Ilocos, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas, Camarines and Albay.


For the first draw, the prize for a whole ticket was P2, and half ticket, PI, and one fourth of a ticket, 4 reales. A total of P15,000 was to be distributed to the winners as follows: 1 winner of 5,000, 1 of 2,000, 1 of 1,000, 1 of 500,20 winners of 100 each (2,000), 50 winners of 50 each (2,500), 50 winners of 32 each (1,600), and 25 winners of 16 each (400), for a total of 149 winners.

Real Loteria Filipina Lottery Seals
There were monthly draws from January 21,1851 to July 19, 1898, with the implementing rules as well as the prize money being changed over time. Later, the prize money was divided into four shares, and for special draws, eight shares (as indicated on the back of the tickets). In the middle years, the pot was divided into 10 and 12 shares. By the 1890s, there were 20 shares. 


Real Loteria Filipina tickets were produced in four designs, the first used from 1851 to the 1870s, another from the 1870s to 1891, and two more subsequently. Tickets were also issued for rifas or raffles, probably provincial or local lotteries, such as Cavite 1883, Bolinao (then under Zambales) 1885, Manila 1889.

Spanish period tickets at the moment fetch from PhP 2,000 to 4,000 each, although they may go up as more studies are done.

1891 Real Loteria Filipina  similar the to winning lottery ticket of Jose Rizal 

 Jose Rizal and his family always bought lottery tickets. By sheer persistence Rizal won second prize on the number 9763. He shared the ticket with Ricardo Carcinero, Politico-Military Governor of Dapitan. According to Carcinero in a letter dated October 1892, "Three of us own the ticket in equal parts: Rizal, a Spaniard residing in Dipolog called Francisco Equilor, and I. .. “ They each netted (after taxes?) P6,200 each.

Source: Metro acquire.

Prizes for the wining lottery tickets in 1897


HISTORY of the Philippine Lottery and Sweepstakes

By Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office 


THE BEGINNING OF LOTTERIES IN THE PHILIPPINES

1895, 1896 and 1897 Lottery Tickets
Historically, lotteries have been in existence in the Philippines as early as 1833. Under the auspices of private enterprises called Empresa de Reales Loteria Espanolas de Filipinas, the Spanish Government conducted loterias to generate revenues. In fact, our own national hero Dr. Jose Rizal won Php 6,200.00 in the draw of 1892, while on exile in Dapitan. He donated his winnings to an educational project. This altruistic act gives an inkling of what could be done if the lottery was harnessed for charitable and social welfare projects.

With the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution, the loteria was forced to stop operations. And it was not until the early 1930s that the idea of holding lottery games was revived. In 1932, the first Sweepstakes draw was conducted by the government to raise funds to support sports projects for the Filipino youth through the Philippine Amateur Athletic Federation (PAAF) – the beneficiary of the first draw.

The PAAF Sweepstakes was successful so Philippine government decided to conduct more draws for the benefit of the Philippine Anti-Tuberculosis Society, now the Philippine Tuberculosis Society (PTS). The draws were held under the auspices of an organization called the National Charity Sweepstakes.

1937 Dec. Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Ticket

THE NEW SWEEPSTAKES AGENCY

Rather than limit the sweepstakes to the benefit of the youth or to fighting tuberculosis, the country’s legislators thought of institutionalizing the Sweepstakes as a new venture of raising funds for the promotion of public health and general welfare.

By March 1935, then President Manuel L. Quezon approved Act 4130 – the law passed by the Philippine Legislature in October 30, 1934 creating the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes, replacing the then National Charity Sweepstakes. Under this law, the new organization was authorized to secure from the National Treasury a loan amounting to Php250,000.00, the minimum amount required for organizing the office and printing the tickets for the draw. 


On September 8, 1935, the new agency held its first Sweepstakes draw. Needless to say, the loan was paid back in less than two months and shortly after the note was signed, proceeds from the sales started pouring in. The mandate of the Sweepstakes found acceptance among the Filipino people; its humanitarian mission readily won public trust and support.

1930's  Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Tickets
Among its beneficiaries then were the Philippine Amateur Athletic Federation (PAAF), the Philippine Tuberculosis Society (PTS), the National Federation of Women’s Clubs, the Association de Damas de Filipinas, the Gota de Leche, the Associate of Manila and the Provinces, the Philippine Council of Boy Scouts of America, the Asilo Para Invalidos de los Veteranos de la Revolucion, the Child Welfare Center and other institutions and organizations engaged in charitable and health work, or work for the improvement of the conditions of the indigent Filipino masses.

On June 18,1954, Republic Act 1169 was enacted into law providing for charity sweepstakes and lotteries once a month when there are no Sweepstakes draws and races.

The PCSO has since remained to be an indispensable charity arm of the government, frequently summoned to provide funding for essential health and welfare activities and projects nationwide.


BIGGER SHARE FOR CHARITY

1950's  Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Tickets
In September 1979, Batas Pambansa Blg.42 was enacted into law amending the PCSO Charter (RA 1169). The law raised the fund allocation for the agency’s Charity Fund from the previous 25% of net sales to 30%, while 55% now went to prizes and the remaining 15% for operations. On top of the 30% share from net receipts, all unclaimed prizes go to the Charity Fund.

Since then, the frequency of draws was also increased. Draws were held every week all year round, not to mention the special draws like the Php20 millionFreedom Draw held every February 25, the Php5 million draws, and the Php25 million Christmas Draws. Despite the notable up-trend in sweepstakes activity, the growing number of requests for greater financial assistance from all over the country has been outstripping the earnings from ticket sales. 


During the administration of then President Fidel V. Ramos, the PCSO was mandated to undertake a very important mission: to support government’s rehabilitation program for the areas devastated by the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. As an adjunct to this, President Ramos issued Proclamation No. 51, “Exhorting the public and private sectors to support the PCSO Special Pinatubo Lottery Draw scheduled on October 22, 1992 to raise charity funds for the victims of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption.” That was the first of a series of draws the PCSO had embarked on to raise the Php 350 million which was disbursed later to the President’s Calamity Fund.

1950 -1970's  Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Tickets

On February 14,1993, the PCSO conducted the first of a series of draws to support the Cordillera Autonomous Region Livelihood Project – a project that provides our Filipino brothers and sisters in the Cordilleras the opportunity to work and to develop themselves as productive entrepreneurs of the community.


As embodied in its charter, the PCSO’s primary objective is to provide funds for health programs, medical assistance and services and charities of national character. The PCSO’s mandate sets the pace for the development of community health care in all the regional hospitals nationwide through the establishment of Tuberculosis Centers, Cancer and Pain Centers, and Dialysis Centers that deliver vital medical assistance and services to the people.

1998 Philippine Charity Sweepstakes featuring Jose Rizal

Source: www.pcso.gov.ph/pages-about/history.aspx



Tuesday, January 2, 2018

120. FILIPINIANA POCKET WATCHES




Antique pocket watches are some of the most intricate pieces of equipment that man has created, and are great for collecting as antiques. There have been a multitude of brands and types of watches over the years, comprised of different materials and all varying in value, which can make starting a collection difficult.  Pocket watches are made up of two major components called the watch movement and watch case. The case is the exterior of the pocket watch, usually made of a precious metal and the watch movement is the inside of the watch, and contains all the pieces that make it tick.

These antique Filipiniana pocket watches can range in price from anywhere to less than 15,000  to 100,000 pesos  in value depending on the intricacy of the design and brand of the watch. Some of these imported brands found here are Omega, Elgin, Longines and other Swiss watches.  Starting an antique pocket watch collection is not only potentially lucrative, but can be an incredibly fulfilling and enjoyable hobby.

There’s a wealth of knowledge about different Filipiniana watches that you can buy. Mostly stores carrying their name on the face, are the most popular and sought after. Estrella Del Norte, Geislammer Bros. and Felix Ullmann & Co. were some of the stores that sold these pocket watches. They were popular among Filipino gentlemen and were a fashion fad at the turn-of-the-century.  Most shops selling these pocket watches were in Escolta, a commercial district with stores and boutiques selling imported goods from Japan, US, and Europe.  




 
La Estrella del Norte advertisement selling an Omega pocket watch
 
BARONG TAGALOG

 
CHRONOMETER BARONG TAGALOG
 
MERALCO Tramvia Conductor's Pocket Watch
MERALCO Transportation Light Power. ELGIN USA

ESTRELLA DEL NORTE, OMEGA, Manila-Iloilo.

 
MERIDIAN GREILSAMMER BROS. Manila


MERIDIAN GREILSAMMER BROS. Manila with Andres Bonifacio's
Balintawak Monument engraving at the back.
Poem of Rizal engraved at the inside back cover.

ELGIN Watch with Jose Rizal's profile lightly engraved on the back cover

LONGINES GREILSAMMER BROS. Manila with the rare
Gen. Aguinaldo's Revolutionary BIAK NA BATO fob
(Melvin Lam Collection)


MERIDIAN GREILSAMMER BROS. Manila with intricate back cover design 
(Melvin Lam Collection)


MERIDIAN GREILSAMMER BROS. with Spanish and US Philippine coins fob.
(Melvin Lam Collection)
Rizaliana pocket watches and other memorabilia (Mon Villegas Collection)

La Estrella del Norte advertisement selling pocket watches, jewelries and other luxury items



Although these Marcos wristwatches are not pocket watches, they have become popular among watch collectors.




Monday, January 1, 2018

119. WHAT'S IN A NAME - Philippine Cigarette Trivia



PUGUT NEGRO



According to Kapampangan at Ilocano, Pugot is described as a Negro (large black man), scary, but not malicious entity. These characteristics eventually came to the now known “Kapre” in Tagalog. It also has a power of change, sometimes it becomes a cat, or a ball of fire. It often lives in homeless houses or large trees such as duhat, santol, and tamarind.



Various Aeta groups in northern Luzon are known as Pugot or Pugot, an Ilocano term that came to be known as “goblin” or “forest spirit”, and is the colloquial term for people with darker complexions. The earliest belief of the Pugot “spirit” is found in Ilocano myths as the spirits of ancestral aborigines (Aetas) who guard treasures.
 
According to Maximo Ramos in his book, "The Creatures of Philippine Lower Mythology", the word "Pugot" means “Black one or Negro”, "the decapitated one," or "one with hands cut off."
Looking at this creature in the perspectives of the Ifugao, we can look at its appearance in the former headhunting rites of the natives. For the Ifugao, the practice of this ritual has become important as a ceremony. Often a person's mortification is due to the desire to take revenge, so it is even more a burial. It is unfortunate that this ritual has become the cause of this ritual so it is said to be the most from all the misfortunes of an Ifugao.



BALUGA




The word Baluga is a term used to refer to the Aetas, the curly-haired, very dark-skinned indigenous peoples of the Philippines who are related more to the native tribes of Papua New Guinea who bear a closer physical resemblance to a few African groups than to the brown Malayans of Southeast Asia.
Often used in a derogatory sense, this word is not used in polite conversation!  Ang balugang aktres- the actress with African-American looks.

Other words related in meaning that are considered offensive and should not be used: nugnug, nognog, nug nug, nog nog



ARAYAT



Maria Sinukuan is the diwata (fairy) or mountain goddess associated with Mount Arayat in Pampanga, Philippines, and is a prominent example of the mountain-goddesses motiff in Philippine mythology, other prominent examples being Maria Makiling of Los Baños and Maria Cacao of Cebu.

Legend of Maria Sinukuan
 
Sinukuan is associated with the unusual bounty of the forests in Arayat, and with the profusion of animals there. Watching over the needs of the people in the nearby town, she used to regularly leave fruits and animals at the doorstep of locals who needed food during hard times. At one point, though, a group of young men got greedy. They sought out where Sinukuan’s home was in the mountains, and when they found it, they asked for more than what they actually needed. Sinukuan did not object to this, and allowed them to pick a great load of fruits. She warned them, however, not to get any fruits from the forest without her permission. On their way back home, they decided they would get more. Why not? They asked each other. “She won't know we took home fruits and animals. They're so plentiful, she won't know the difference." But she did. As soon as they had started picking more fruit, their packs began to feel heavier. They soon discovered that all the fruit and meat they were carrying had turned into rocks. The young men ran away, but before they managed to escape the forest, Sinukuan appeared before them. As punishment, she said, she would turn them into swine. And so she did.

But the other people in the village were also getting greedy. More and more, they stole from Sinukuan’s forests. Angered, Sinukuan stopped leaving food at their doorsteps. She made the fruit trees and animals in the mountain to disappear. And she also never allowed the villagers to see her again.



LA  LIMASAWA



The first Catholic Mass in the Philippines was held on March 31, 1521, Easter Sunday. It was said by Father Pedro de Valderrama along the shores of Limasawa at the tip of Southern Leyte.  Limasawa is this popularly known as the birthplace of the Church in the Philippines.


History of the name LIMASAWA

“Mazaua” is the original name of this municipality. There are two assumptions how the municipality got its name:  One assumption is that before the Spanish men arrived to the island, the natives don’t really have a name of their place. Upon the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan and his men, one of the natives was asked for the name of their place. The native, unable to understand what it meant, mistakenly interpreted the question to mean as to “how many wives their Rajah has”. So he answered immediately “Lima’y Asawa”, meaning that their Rajah has five wives. The Spanish too, thinking that was the answer to his question, return to tell his companions that the island is named “Lima’y Asawa ”. And from then on, the place came to be called as “Limasawa”.



MELCHOR, GASPAR, BALTAZAR


The biblical Magi, also referred to as the Three Wise Men or Three Kings, were, in the Gospel of Matthew and Christian tradition, a group of distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. They are regular figures in traditional accounts of the nativity celebrations of Christmas and are an important part of Christian tradition.

The New Testament does not give the names of the Magi. However, traditions and legends identify a variety of different names for them. In the Western Christian church, they have been all regarded as saints and are commonly known as:

Melchior also Melichior, a Persian scholar;
Caspar also Gaspar, Jaspar, Jaspas, Gathaspa, and other variations), an Indian scholar;
Balthazar also Balthasar, Balthassar, and Bithisarea, a Babylonian scholar.

Encyclopedia Britannica states: "according to Western church tradition, Balthasar is often represented as a king of Arabia, Melchior as a king of Persia, and Gaspar as a king of India." These names apparently derive from a Greek manuscript probably composed in Alexandria around 500, and which has been translated into Latin with the title Excerpta Latina Barbari. Another Greek document from the 8th century, of presumed Irish origin and translated into Latin with the title Collectanea et Flores, continues the tradition of three kings and their names and gives additional details.

One candidate for the origin of the name Caspar appears in the Acts of Thomas as Gondophares (21 – c. AD 47), i.e., Gudapharasa (from which "Caspar" might derive as corruption of "Gaspar"). This Gondophares declared independence from the Arsacids to become the first Indo-Parthian king, and he was allegedly visited by Thomas the Apostle. According to Ernst Herzfeld, his name is perpetuated in the name of the Afghan city Kandahar, which he is said to have founded under the name Gundopharron.


LA ASAMBLEA FILIPINA

The Philippine Assembly was the lower house of the Philippines from 1907 to 1916. Along with an upper house (the appointed Philippine Commission), it formed the bicameral Philippine Legislature during part of the American Colonial Period.

The Assembly was created by the 1902 Philippine Organic Act of the United States Congress, which established the Insular Government of the Philippines. In 1916, the Jones Act replaced the Philippine Organic Act and the Assembly became the current House of Representatives of the Philippines.

The first Philippine Assembly elections were held on July 30, 1907. These were the first nationwide elections ever held in the Philippines. The Assembly was inaugurated on October 16, 1907 with Sergio Osmeña as Speaker of the Assembly, Manuel L. Quezon as majority leader, and Vicente Singson as minority leader.

The inauguration of the assembly marked a "turning point in the country’s history, for its creation marked the commencement of Filipino participation in self-governance and a big leap towards self-determination."  The Philippine Assembly was the first legislative body in the Philippines fully chosen by national elections. It is a direct precursor of the current House of Representatives of the Philippines.



LA REINA FILIPINA (Carnival Queen)


Manila Carnival was an annual carnival festival held in Manila during the early American colonial period up to the time before the Second World War. The highlight of the event is the crowning of the Carnival Queens. Cameron Forbes and the carnival promoters established the Carnival Queen contest. The Queen will be selected through purchase of ballots through newspaper clippings. Initially, Forbes decided to restrict the contest to the daughters of the wealthiest families from the capital city of Manila but eventually accepted entries from different parts of the country. The Queen was voted through a system of money ballots or magazine coupons. Philippine magazines like Liwayway, Telembang and Lipang Kalabaw had such coupons inserted in their pages.

The Carnival Queens dressed the most beautiful costumes of the parade, ranging from Egyptian inspired to Siamese to that of the Arabian Scheherazade.

The first Manila Carnival in 1908 elected two queens representing the Oriental beauty and the Western beauty (called Occident) – Pura Villanueva from Iloilo City, Iloilo (Queen of the Orient) and Marjorie Radcliffe Colton from Galesburg, Illinois(Queen of the Occident). The only other time this happened was in 1920 Manila Carnival. In 1912, for the first time aside from the carnival queen the contest chose four ladies to represent Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao and American homeland. In 1913, three women representing Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao were named as co-winners of the Manila Carnival. The first and only American woman to solely win as Carnival Queen was Mela Kamakee Fairchild (born in Oakland, California in 1898) in the 1917 Manila Carnival. Two queens were also chosen in 1926 to elect the last to be called as the Carnival Queen (Socorro Henson) and the very first Miss Philippines (Anita Agoncillo Noble)

Manila Carnival Queen is the precursor of various national pageants in the Philippines.


MADLANG HIWAGA / ANG BANTAY NA SCOUT



Ang Bantay na Scout or Philippine Scouts was a military organization of the United States Army from 1901 until the end of World War II and disbanded in 1948 by the Philippines Government after the country's independence. Made up of Filipino-Americans assigned to the United States Army Philippine Department, these troops were generally enlisted and under the command of White-American officers, however, a handful of Filipino Americans received commissions from the United States Military Academy. Philippine Scout units were given a suffix of (PS), to distinguish them from other U.S. Army units.

The first Scout companies were organized by the US in 1901 to combat the Philippine revolutionary forces led at that time by General Emilio Aguinaldo. In 1919–20, the PS companies were grouped into regiments as part of the US Army and redesignated the 43d, 44th, 45th, and 57th Infantry Regiments, plus the 24th and 25th Field Artillery Regiments, the 26th Cavalry Regiment (PS) and the 91st and 92nd Coast Artillery Regiments. Service and support formations were also organized as engineer, medical, quartermaster and military police units. The infantry and field artillery regiments were grouped together with the U.S. 31st Infantry Regiment to form the U.S. Army’s Philippine Division. At this point, the Scouts became the U.S. Army’s front line troops in the Pacific.

The Philippine Department assigned the Scouts to subdue the Moro tribes on the island of Mindanao (see Moro rebellion), and to establish tranquility throughout the islands. In the 1930s, Philippine Scouts, along with the 31st Infantry Regiment, saw action at Jolo, Palawan.
Philippine Scout regiments became some of the first United States Army units to be in combat during World War II, until the surrender of USAFFE in May 1942. Even after that some individual soldiers and units refused to surrender and become beginning elements of the resistance to the Japanese occupation. Later paroled POWs would also join the resistance.



DIMASALANG



Rizal who has been known for his strong criticisms against the Spaniards wouldn’t have written all his essays and articles using his real name. He used the pen names Dimasalang and Laong Laan in many of his writings.

Dr. Jose Rizal used the pen name Dimasalang when he served as a correspondent of the same Spanish newspaper La Solidaridad. Rizal also wrote a literary work in Spain titled “Amor Patrio” meaning love of country. The piece was included in “Diarong Tagalog” which was a daily newspaper released in Manila. Rizal also used the pseudonym “May Pagasa” when he transferred to Madrid and became a member of Freemasonry.

Dr. Jose Rizal also used Laong Laan which was the name of a railway station in Manila, when he was a contributor of poems and articles for the Spanish newspaper “La Solidaridad” was. Others who contributed to La Solidaridad and used pen names were Marcelo H. del Pilar who used Plaridel, Mario Ponce used the aliases Naning, Kalipulo or Tigbalang, Antonio Luna as Taga Ilog and Jose Maria Panganiban who used Jomapa. “La Solidaridad” is an organization created in Spain and issued a newspaper of the same name published in Barcelona, Spain. Jose Rizal’s cousin named Galicano Apacible headed the organization.


LA HOJA PURA / ISAAC PERAL



ISAAC PERAL was an old street name in Ermita, Manila that was later changed to United Nations Avenue.  Little did I know that Isaac Peral was a Spanish scientist, inventor, and military man. He invented the submarine -- the first U-boat in naval history.

He was sent in mission to the Philippines in 1881, first as a geographer and later as an officer of a gunboat. During his stay in the Philippines, he received seven patents between 1887 and 1891 for his other inventions.

The PERAL was the first electric battery powered submarine built by Isaac Peral, for the Spanish Navy. The first fully capable military submarine was launched on September 8, 1888. It had two torpedoes, new air systems, hull shape and propeller and cruciform external controls anticipating later designs. When fully charged it was the fastest submarine yet built, with performance levels that matched or exceeded those of First World War U-boats. In June 1890 Peral's submarine launched a torpedo under the sea. It was also the first submarine to incorporate a fully reliable underwater navigation system.





MONEDA  FILIPINAS


MONEDA FILIPINA or Philippine Money during the American colonial era was first issued in 1903. It featured a lady with a hammer and an bald eagle on American shield which is similar to the design of US Philippine coinage.  Philippine artist Melecio Figueroa was enlisted to provide the designs for the coinage, creating a a standing woman design for the silver denomination coins, which have been modeled on his daughter Bianca.



ALHAMBRA

We know Alhambra as a popular cigar/cigarette brand here in the Philippine, but in Spain Alhambra or "The Red One" is a popular palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Andalusia. It was originally constructed as a small fortress in AD 889 on the remains of Roman fortifications, and then largely ignored until its ruins were renovated and rebuilt in the mid-13th century by the Nasrid emir Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the Emirate of Granada, who built its current palace and walls. It was converted into a royal palace in 1333 by Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada. After the conclusion of the Christian Reconquista in 1492, the site became the Royal Court of Ferdinand and Isabella (where Christopher Columbus received royal endorsement for his expedition), and the palaces were partially altered in the Renaissance style. In 1526 Charles I & V commissioned a new Renaissance palace better befitting the Holy Roman Emperor in the revolutionary Mannerist style influenced by Humanist philosophy in direct juxtaposition with the Nasrid Andalusian architecture, but which was ultimately never completed due to Morisco rebellions in Granada.

Alhambra's latest flowering of Islamic palaces were built for the last Muslim emirs in Spain during the decline of the Nasrid dynasty who were increasingly subject to the Christian Kings of Castile. After being allowed to fall into disrepair for centuries, the buildings occupied by squatters, Alhambra was rediscovered following the defeat of Napoleon, who had conducted retaliatory destruction of the site. The rediscoverers were first British intellectuals and then other north European Romantic travelers. It is now one of Spain's major tourist attractions, exhibiting the country's most significant and well-known Islamic architecture, together with 16th-century and later Christian building and garden interventions. The Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the inspiration for many songs and stories.



EL LUCERO

EL LUCERO DEL ALBA, sometimes called "Star of the dawn", is a popular name to refer to the planet Venus, when it is visible in the sky at dawn. In English it is used "Morning star", in French "Étoile du matin", and in German "Morgenstern", the 3 terms, literally "star of the morning". There is also the name "Evening Star" or "Evening Star" to refer to the vision of Venus at sunset. The term has poetic and mystical connotations.


 Sources:
(1) Wikipedia  
(2)  https://www.aswangproject.com/pugot/
(3)  https://www.tagaloglang.com/baluga/
(4)  https://www.joserizal.com/jose-rizal-pen/